NOTE: This document uses HTML 3.0 Extensions for Superscripts and Subscripts. It must be viewed with an appropriate browser (such as Netscape Version 3 or higher)
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) has a Style Manual (4th Edition, 1990) which specifies how to format text for submission to an AIP journal (such as Physics Today or Physical Review). A style manual for Physical Review is available online at
Below is a summary of how to quote sources using the AIP format.
A sample section of a paper, including references, is shown below:
The first experimental search of muonium-antimuonium conversion, in 1968, placed a 95% confidence upper limit1 of G<5800GF on the four-fermion coupling constant.2 A number of experiments 3,4 have placed more stringent limits on this conversion. The first run of the current TRIUMF experiment published the limit5 G<0.88GF (90% confidence). A preliminary upper limit of G<0.5GF has been quoted by a LAMPF experiment.6 Using a longer run than our previous result,5 we report the final results of the TRIUMF experiment of G<0.29GF (90% confidence) on the conversion of muonium to antimuonium.
1 J.J. Amato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1709 (1968).
2 GF is the Fermi coupling constant 1.16637(2)×10-5 GeV-2(hbar c)3, from Review of Particle Properties, Phys. Lett. B 204, 51 (1988).
3 W.C. Barber et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 902 (1969); G.M. Marshall et al., Phys. Rev. D 25, 1174 (1982); B. Ni et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2716 (1987); Nucl. Phys. A478, 757c (1988).
4 G.A. Beer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 671 (1986).
5 T.M. Huber et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2189 (1988).
6 H.J. Mundinger et al., in Rare Decay Symposium, edited by D. Bryman, J. Ng, T. Numao, and J.-M. Poutissou (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989).
[The text above is a slightly modified excerpt from Search for Mixing of Muonium and Antimuonium, T.M. Huber et al., Phys. Rev. D 41, 2709 (1990). ]
A couple of comments on how I included references in this paper.
... upper limit1 of G<5800GF on the ...
... upper limit of G<5800GF1 on the ...
which could lead to confusion that it implies GF to the 1st power.
Below are some of the more important types of references that you may need in your reports.
H.H. Seliger, Phys. Today 48 (11), 25 (1995).
1R.A. Serway and J.W. Jewett, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th Ed. (Thomson,
, 2004), pp. 100-102. Belmont, CA
1C.N. Niederriter, Radioactivity and Ionizing Radiation,
Lab Handout (Unpublished). Gustavus Adolphus College
2D.C. Henry, (Private Communication).
1T. Huber and
S. Mellema, Computer Program Modelfit, ( , Unpublished). Gustavus Adolphus College
2Computer Program SIGMAPLOT Version 5.0, (Jandel Scientific, 1992).
1T.M. Huber, How To Locate Material for Formal Reports, WWW Document, (http://physics.gac.edu/~huber/misc/finding.htm).
For more information or complicated references, see the AIP Style manual.